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Notes on Literary Criticism – Part II

March 19, 2016 | By

Plato’s opinion regarding a text was that it should be didactic. It should instruct society. But Aristotle questioned Plato’s opinions. He strongly affirmed that a text should be purely aesthetic. Therefore, each critic constructs a different frame around the text.

Compiled and Edited by Dr Suja Menon
Dr Faustus

Dr. Faustus is analyzed as a play containing features of the Morality Play and also containing those aspects that are different from it thereby being shaped as a typical Elizabethan or Renaissance play.

Context plays a vital role in literary criticism. There are various approaches to a text like the biographical approach (discussing the life and works of an author and trying to relate events in his/her life to the text per se), the historical approach (trying to place the author in a particular age, relating some of the facts or events in the text to the facts/events during that age), the geographical approach (this is popularly called the local colour; for instance, in Dr. Faustus, Marlowe discusses Italy and Rome no doubt, but he also introduces the horse-courser, the ostler, Rafe and Robin – characters who are undoubtedly British and whom Marlowe must have come across or closely observed in everyday life).

There is also the formalist approach where the text is seen in the light of the age in which the author is placed; for instance, Dr. Faustus is analyzed as a play containing features of the Morality Play and also containing those aspects that are different from it thereby being shaped as a typical Elizabethan or Renaissance play. Here, the form of the play is analyzed (containing aspects of Greek drama like the chorus or hamartia) and the play is also analyzed in terms of the Elizabethan age where drama was the dominant literary discourse.

That brings us back to classical literary criticism. Plato’s opinion regarding a text was that it should be didactic. It should instruct society. But Aristotle questioned Plato’s opinions. He strongly affirmed that a text should be purely aesthetic. Therefore, each critic constructs a different frame around the text.

The Republic

The parable of the cave mentioned by Plato is one of the most important contributions made to philosophy. It occurs in The Republic.

Phaedrus

It is interesting to note that Derrida uses Plato’s Phaedrus to emphasize his views of deconstruction.

The parable of the cave mentioned by Plato is one of the most important contributions made to philosophy. It occurs in The Republic and is attributed to  Socrates. A man is in a cave and it is pitch-dark. There are things in the cave and he feels the presence of those things. He sees their shadows but is unable to see them clearly. Based on these shadows, he describes the things that he sees. Philosophy is the light that dispels the darkness and displays reality. It sets the man free from his chains of ignorance and he is able to see things the way they are and not the way he thought they were. In other words, he is no longer looking at shadows but at the things themselves. So, this brings us to a three-tier structure: The Ideal or the Perfect that is comprehended by philosophy, the Real that is an imitation of the Ideal, and the Mimetic that is an imitation of the Real.

Four schools of philosophy during the Greek period were logic, ethics, epistemology, and rhetoric. Philosophy was elevated to a higher status during this period. Some of the views of philosophers have stood the test of time. For instance, Heraclitus stated that one doesn’t step into the same water twice because the water flows perpetually.

It is interesting to note that Derrida uses Plato’s Phaedrus to emphasize his views of deconstruction. In the middle of the conversation (between Plato and Socrates), Socrates says written instructions will lead to error because there is no one to interpret the writer’s views to the readers. Therefore, speech is primary. Derrida says Socrates’ view that speech is primary has stood the test of time only because it was written down by Plato. Therefore, a text not only says more than what it wishes to say but also the opposite of what the author wishes it to say.

Plato relegated actors and writers to a secondary position and set philosophers on the highest realm. Aristotle, on the other hand, relegated philosophers to a secondary position and focused more on actors and writers. Alexander of Macedonia (Aristotle’s pupil and one of the renowned kings in history) relegated philosophers, actors, and writers to a secondary position and placed warriors on a higher level because he was a warrior primarily.

More to read in Literary Criticism

Notes On Literary Criticism by Dr A V Koshy

Writing, Theory and the Making of Verse

Curating Micro-narratives: The New Creativity

How To Enjoy a Poem: Taking the example of Langston Hughes’ “Harlem” or “A Dream Deferred .”

Canons

Dr Koshy A. V. is presently an Assistant Professor in the Department of English at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He has written, co-written and co-edited many books of criticism, fiction and poetry to his credit with authors like A.V. Varghese, Gorakhnath Gangane, Angel Meredith, Madhumita Ghosh, Zeenath Ibrahim, Rukhaya MK and Bina Biswas, among others, and one of them, a solo effort and pamphlet, 'A Treatise on Poetry for Beginners' was reprinted once as 'Art of Poetry.' He is a Pushcart Poetry Prize nominee (2012), and four times Best Poem winner in Destiny Poets UK ICOP (2013, 2014, 2018, 2019) and he was thrice featured in Camel Saloon’s The Hump for best poem/editor’s pick. Even as a child he won the Shankar's International Award for writing, at the age of six or seven. He is a reputed critic and expert on Samuel Beckett, having done his Ph.D on him as well as having written a book on him, "Samuel Beckett's English Poetry", besides being a literary theoretician. His other books include "Wake Up, India: Essays for Our Times", co-authored with Dr Bina Biswas, and "Mahesh Dattani's Plays: Staging the Invisibles," research essays by many collected and co-edited with Bina Biswas, "The Significant Anthology" that he edited with Reena Prasad and Michele Baron, a collection of his stories "Scream and Other Urbane Legends" published by Lifi, and an anthology or collection of poetry "Igniting Key," with Bina Biswas and Pramila Khadun. He has edited or co-edited many books including A Man Outside History by Naseer Ahmed Nasir and Inklinks: An Anthology by PoetsCorner and Umbilical Chords with Dr Madan Gandhi, Dr Santosh Bakaya , Himali Narang and Vineetha Mekkoth. He instituted the Reuel International Literary Prize in 2014 for excellence in writing and runs an Autism NPO with his wife Anna Gabriel. The first Reuel prize was given to Dr Santosh Bakaya. He administers with the help of others the literary group Rejected Stuff on Facebook, also known as THE SIGNIFICANT LEAGUE. His poems have been studied in a research paper by Dr Zeenath Ibrahim and by Kiriti Sengupta in The Dazzling Bards and translated into Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, German, Bengali, Tamil, Spanish, Arabic and Malayalam. He won World Bank’s Urgent Evoke and participated in European Union’s Edgeryders. He has been interviewed extensively by people like Gina McKnight. He has other degrees like a Dip.Ed, diplomas, certificates and awards or prizes to his credit including best researcher and academic 2018 in Jazan University, besides his UGC and doctorate on Beckett. He attributes everything to God’s grace and the prayers and good wishes of his loved ones and friends. His latest books are "Allusions to Simplicity" and "Birds of Different Feathers", both collections of poetry like his first one "Figs". He is working on ten books now, one being on Bob Dylan. He has a certificate in Masters of World Literature from HarvardX, USA, earned in 2019, and a certificate from Nanowrimo USA in 2018, besides completing 2019 NAPOWRIMO, USA. He also co-edited with Reena Prasad, Michele Baron and Anna Gabriel "Silhouette I and II featuring Eternal Links", and contributed to "Eyes Bloodshot: Hallowe'en Tales" edited by Firdaus Parvez, both short story anthologies. His other book is "Wrighteings: In Media Res", a collection of essays, and he has contributed to international magazines, both online and print, and poetry and short story anthologies aplenty. He was a columnist for Niamh Clune's Plum Tree, Ireland, and has been published by Barry Mowles, Brian Wrixon, Bezine, Madswirl, Spillwords, Wagon, Oddball magazine, Setu, Tuck magazine, the Pangolin Review, OPA ,Metaworker, Atunis Galaktike, Nothing, No one, Nowhere, Episteme, Virogray etc. He also has many research papers to his credit in places like Langlit, uncollected as yet. He has had retrospectives of his work done by Duane Vorhees and Glory Sasikala in duanesnewpoetree.blogspot.com and Glomag respectively. He recently achieved ten thousand reads on Research Gate for his research articles on display there.
All Posts of Dr Ampat Varghese Koshy

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